Monday, February 18, 2013

Linux User and Group Administration Commands:

1) How to add user in linux.

The syntax is as follows:
# adduser username
# useradd username

2) How to delete user in linux.

#userdel username

3) How to set password for a user in linux.

#passwd username

4) How to lock user account in Linux.

The syntax is as follows:
#passwd -l {username}

5) How to unlock user account in Linux.

#passwd -u {username}

6) How to create group in linux.

The syntax is as follows:
# groupadd  group name

7)How to add user to group
# useradd -G group name  username

8) What is UID for root user.

#  id root
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)

9) How to check os version in linux.

# cat /etc/redhat-release
#cat /proc/version

10) How to check free disk space in linux.
#df -h

Thursday, February 7, 2013

Useful Commands for Windows Administrators:-

DIR                       ---  List of files and directory.
DIR /aa     
           ---  List of files and directories
            ---  List folder path.
            ---  Change directories
            ---  Make/Create directories
           ---  Make/Create directories
          ---  Create a file or link directory
          ---  Remove an existing directory
            ---  Remove an existing directory
           ---  Present working directory.
           ---  Delete the directory or file.
           ---  Delete the directory or file.
            ---  Copy the contents from directory.
            ---  Displays contents of a file on the screen  
             ---  Clears the terminal screen.
           ---  Rename directory or file.
            ---  Rename a file
             ---  Shows current date and time of system.
              ---  Move to directory or file from one location to other.
               ---  Compare two files and show differences.
set variable 
          ---  Set environmental variables
         ---  Print the same output which we gave in input
           ---  Give a print for a file
              ---  Reboot the system.
             ---  It display a hostname of computer
                ---  ping is intended for use in network testing, measurement, and management.
tracert                  ---  The tracert command is used to show details about the path that a packet takes to a specified destination.
ipconfig               ---  Displays information about network interface.
route print   
         ---  It print routing table
net share              ---  shows mounted partition of OS.
         ---  show system information(OS type, arch, mem info)
             ---  shows version of Operating System.
             ---  Kills the specified processes
              ---  Formats a disk to accept DOS files(Pen drives or HDD)
doskey /h     
       ---  Display the history of commands.
help or commands /? -- Displays information about a command.

Basic Exim Commands:

Check the mail logs through following command:

[root@test  ~]# cat /var/log/exim_mainlog | grep

To see sent mail log view /var/log/maillog file.

You can see messages that are in the postfix queue.

[root@test  ~]# mailq

-Queue ID- --Size-- ----Arrival Time---- -Sender/Recipient-------

Count the number of messages in the queue on the server use following command

[root@test  ~]# exim -bpc

 Listing the messages in the queue (time queued, size, message-id, sender, recipient).

[root@test  ~]# exim -bp

Print a summary of messages in the queue (count, volume, oldest, newest, domain, and totals).

[root@test  ~]# exim -bp | exiqsumm

Check what Exim is doing right now.

[root@test  ~]# exiwhat

Wednesday, February 6, 2013

How to install IIS 8.0 on Windows Server 2012? Go through the following simple steps:

To install IIS 8.0 on Windows 2012 follow the steps below:

1. Open Server Manager.
2. Under Manage menu, select the option Add Roles and Features.
3. Select Role-based OR Feature-based Installation.
4. Select the appropriate server option (local option selected by default)
5. Then select Web Server IIS (Internet Information Server/Service)
6. Default no additional features are needed to run IIS (If you required any then you can choose it as per your requirement)
7. Click on Next:
8. Customize your installation of IIS, or accept the default settings that have already been selected for you, and then click Next:
9. Click on Install option.
10. When the IIS installation completes, the wizard reflects the installation status.
11. After complete installation click on Close to exit the wizard.

Tuesday, February 5, 2013

Database Servers

Database and database related workloads are key components of the business

processing that takes place on Itanium2 based servers.These systems leverage 64-

bit processing to speed database performance, moving large data sets and out

of memory and directly addressing multi-gigabyte segments of the database at



Database is normally known as a collection of information organized in such a

way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data.You

can think a database as an electronic filling system.


There are a lot of database servers in the market right now and these are a few

examples of it…


Oracle Corporation is one of the major companies developing

database management systems (DBMS), tools for database development,

middle-tier software, enterprise resource planning software (ERP),

customer relationship management software (CRM) and

supply chain management (SCM) software.


Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system

(RDBMS) produced by Microsoft. Its primary query language is Transact-SQL, an

implementation of the ANSI/ISO standard Structured Query Language (SQL)

used by both Microsoft and Sybase.


MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL Database Management System

(DBMS) with more than six million installations. MySQL AB makes MySQL Server

available as free software.

Important service ports no:

Port No.     20         FTP-Data   ( FTP Data )
Port No.     21         FTP           ( FTP connection)
Port No.     22         SSH
Port No.     25         SMTP
Port No.     53         DNS
Port No.     80         HTTP
Port No.    110        POP3
Port No.    143        IMAP
Port No.    443        HTTPS
Port No.   3306       MySQL
Port No.   8443       Plesk Panel (with SSL)
Port No.   8880       Plesk Panel
Port No.   2082      cPanel
Port No    2083      cPanel (with SSL)
Port No.   2086      WHM
Port No.   2087      WHM (with SSL)
Port No.   2095      Webmail
Port No.   2096      Webmail (with SSL)
Port No.   1433       MSSQL
Port No.   3389.      RDP
Port No.   23           Telnet
Port No.   80           IIS

Follow the below steps to configure outlook 2007:

(1) Open Microsoft Outlook 2007. From the Tools menu, select Account Settings.
(2) Click New.
(3) Enter Your Name, E-mail Address, Password, and password confirmation
(4) At the bottom, select Manually configure server settings or additional server
types and click Next.
(5) Select Internet E-mail, and click Next.
(6) Enter Your Name and full E-mail Address.
(7) Select either IMAP or POP3 for your Account Type. Use these settings for your
incoming and outgoing servers, depending on the type of email you have:
Incoming mail server :
Outgoing mail server (SMTP) :
Incoming mail server :
Outgoing mail server (SMTP) :
(8) Enter your User Name (your full email address) and Password, and select
Remember password.
(9) Click More Settings.
(10) Click the Outgoing Server tab. Select My outgoing server (SMTP) requires
authentication and Use same settings as my incoming server.
(11) Select the Advanced tab.
(12) Next to Outgoing Server (SMTP), type 80. Then, click OK.
(13) Click Next, and then click Finish.

Monday, February 4, 2013

Linux Basic Commands with Description:

chmod - modify file access rights

su - temporarily become the superuser

chown - change file ownership

chgrp - change a file's group ownership

mkdir – make directories

ls – list directory contents

mv – move (rename) files

find – search for files in a directory hierarchy

grep - print lines matching a pattern

history – prints recently used commands

Server Monitoring Commands in Linux...:-)

::>> To check disk space of server :

df -h

::>> To get the disk space used by specific account : go to account on
server :

du -csh *

::>> To know that which domain or account using more resources and
causing load :

hload 20

::>> If the crons are set at same time and causing load then you can edit
and change the cron time using :

vi /var/spool/cron/(username)

Or, you can use the following :

crontab -e -u (username)

::>> Instead of hload 20, you can use :

hload 200 | sort -k 3

::>> To check the spamming load :

Go to path : cd /var/spool/exim/input

Command : egrep “X-PHP-Script” * -R

::>> To get the processes and server load caused by them :

ps -auxf

::>> To get the cron jobs running on the server :

tail -f /var/log/cron

::>> netstat

It displays a lot of network related information, such as socket usage, routing, interface, protocol, network statistics, and more. following are the parameters of netstat command.

-a Show all socket information

-r Show routing information

-i Show network interface statistics

-s Show network protocol statistics

Web Hosting Ideas...

Hello Readers, 

Today I am going to post some basic Ideas regarding the Web Hosting Concepts:

1) What is Webhost Manager? (WHM)

Webhost manager (WHM) is a web-based tool used by server administrators and resellers to
manage hosting accounts on a web server. WHM listens on ports 2086 and 2087 by default.

2) What is cPanel?

cPanel is a Unix based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and
automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web sites. cPanel utilizes a 3 tier
structure that provides functionality for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners
to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web
browser. cPanel listens on ports 2082 and 2083 by default.

3) What is a Domain Name?

A domain name is a word along with a TLD that uniquely identifies your website.

4) What is Web Hosting?

Web hosting is the act of renting space and bandwidth through a company so that you may
publish your web site online.

5) What is uptime?

Uptime is the percentage of time that a web site is working. For example, if some host has an
uptime average of 99.86% this means that your site will be down for a total about 1 hour each
month, we monitor uptime of customer websites of many web hosts and we display this data on
the host’s details page. Some hosts also offer “uptime guarantees” but this is not as valuable as
it might appear.

6) What is difference between UNIX hosting and Windows hosting?

If you need to support Microsoft products such as ASP, MS Access, or VBScript then Windows
hosting would be better. Furthermore if you are comfortable with IIS and do not have the time
to understand how UNIX works, Windows hosting would again be a better choice.

7) What is domain parking?

Domain parking lets you cheaply reserve a domain name for future use and display and “under
construction” default page on it. You can register a domain and not part it anywhere but then
your site will simply be inaccessible until you get a web host. Some register let you park your
domain for free.

8) What are sub-domains?

Consider subdomain as an extension of your domain. For example your site is A sub-domain would be and another would be

Subdomain are usually treated as separate sites from the main domain site.

9) Why would I need a dedicated IP?

For most people, a dedicated IP is not required. But for people that want to provide anonymous

FTP or a website using SSL, a dedicated IP can make that easier.

10) What is MySQL, MS SQL?

MySQL and MS SQL are database system. Depending on what your host provides you can use a
database to organize your data. To help you out, we have lists on hosts that provide MySQL and
hosts that provide MS SQL. (MySQL port no 3306 & MS SQL port no 1433)